Bobby Brown
Post 2023-12-17
Unveiling CCL(Copper Clad Laminate): Key Material in PCB and AI Componentry

Overview

  • CCL copper foil substrates, with excellent conductivity and flexibility, consist of copper foil layers and dielectric layers. They serve as bridges for communication between electronic components and find widespread applications in electronic products and electrical equipment.
  • CCL, as the primary substrate for PCBs, constructs PCB circuit board structures and provides a conductive layer. PCBs, in turn, serve as foundational platforms for effectively connecting complex electronic circuits and components, widely used in AI hardware, machine learning, and various smart devices.
  • Copper foil comes in various types based on production methods, including common ED electrolytic copper foil and RA rolled copper foil, as well as self-adhesive copper foil, corrosion-resistant copper foil, electromagnetic shielding copper foil, thin-film copper foil, flexible copper foil, and flame-retardant copper foil.
  • Electrolytic copper foil is copper foil produced through an electrolytic deposition process, characterized by high conductivity, high purity, uniform thickness, and a smooth surface. It is commonly used in PCB manufacturing.
  • Rolled copper foil is created by continuously rolling copper ingots through mechanical processes, gradually forming thin copper foil sheets. It offers good flexibility, ductility, high-temperature resistance, and corrosion resistance, commonly used in flexible printed circuit boards (FPCs).

Contents


What is Copper Clad Laminate (CCL)?

Copper Clad Laminate (CCL), a core substrate material for PCBs, is made of a copper foil layer bonded to a non-conductive substrate, typically using an adhesive. Copper foil, usually ranging from 0.005mm to 0.5mm in thickness, is known for its excellent conductivity and malleability, making it ideal for electronic devices. CCL's substrate layer, made from materials like fiberglass or paper-based composites, provides structural support and insulation. The combination of these materials in CCL plays a critical role in PCB manufacturing, contributing to the electrical performance, thermal management, and overall reliability of electronic circuits

[1][2][3][4][5]

CCL in the PCB and AI Industries

Copper Clad Laminate (CCL), the main substrate of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), forms the skeleton of circuit boards, enabling connectivity for electronic components. As a critical bridge for electrical communication, CCL facilitates the intricate interplay of circuits on PCBs. These PCBs, serving as platforms, connect complex electronic circuits and components, crucial in AI hardware like Google's Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) and NVIDIA's GPUs. PCB's applications extend to AI-driven realms like machine learning, deep learning, smart cameras, voice recognition devices, autonomous vehicles, smart home technology, and the Internet of Things (IoT). In essence, CCL's role in PCB fabrication underpins the functionality of sophisticated electronic networks, playing a pivotal part in advancing AI technology and smart device integration. This brief overview integrates the common keywords and concepts related to Copper Clad Laminate, Printed Circuit Boards, and their applications in AI and other smart technologies, ensuring it's concise and clear for native English speakers.


Kown more about Copper Foil Industry

Types of CCL (Copper Clad Laminate)

Copper Clad Laminate (CCL) is a foundational material in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing, essential for creating high-performance and reliable circuit boards. Key types of CCL include Rigid CCLs, like FR-4 and CEM-1, known for their electrical properties and mechanical strength, and Flex CCLs, offering flexibility for diverse applications. CCL varieties are based on factors like insulating materials, reinforcing materials, and performance characteristics. The copper foil in CCL, fundamental for electrical conductivity, comes in forms such as Electrodeposited and Rolled Copper Foil, alongside specialized types like Adhesive, Corrosion-Resistant, EMI Shielding, Thin Film, Flexible, and Flame Retardant Copper Foils. These diverse copper foil types cater to different PCB requirements, influencing factors like thermal conductivity, flexibility, and environmental resistance

[6]

ED(Electrodeposited Copper)

 ED(Electrodeposited Copper)

Electrolytic copper foil, known for its high conductivity, purity, uniform thickness, and smooth surface, is crucial in advanced electronics, particularly in PCB (Printed Circuit Board) manufacturing and internal connections in electronic devices. This foil is produced through an electrolytic deposition process, involving several key steps:

Electrolytic Copper Deposition: A substrate, either glass fiber cloth or cellulose paper, is suspended in an electrolytic bath filled with a copper sulfate solution. When electricity is applied, copper ions are reduced and deposited onto a cathode, forming a uniform copper layer.

Peeling Process: The deposited copper foil is then separated from the substrate.

Strengthening the Plating: Here, a titanium drum connected to a DC voltage source is used. The drum slowly rotates, and copper ions from the electrolytic solution deposit on its surface, creating a strengthened copper layer.

Etching: Chemical or mechanical methods are employed to etch the desired circuit pattern onto the copper foil's surface.

Cutting: Finally, the large copper foil is cut into the required sizes and rolled for ease of transportation and future use.
[7][8][9][10][11]

RA( Rolled & Annealed copper)

RA( Rolled & Annealed copper)

Rolled & Annealed Copper (RA) foil offers superior flexibility, elongation, and high-temperature corrosion resistance compared to electrolytic copper foil, making it ideal for flexible electronic applications such as Flexible Printed Circuit Boards (FPC) and other bendable electronic components. The manufacturing process of RA copper foil involves rolling copper ingots through rolling machinery, gradually thinning them into copper foil sheets.

Billet Heating: High-purity copper billets, which can be ingots, rods, plates, or sheets, are preheated to the appropriate rolling temperature.

Primary Rolling: The heated copper billets undergo primary rolling through machines like rolling mills, initially shaping and thinning the copper.

Intermediate Hot Rolling: The copper foil passes through rolling machinery while maintaining a specific temperature, lengthening the material, reducing thickness, and enhancing uniformity.

Cold Rolling: This process further thins the copper foil, leading to a finer, more uniform grain structure, and improving the mechanical properties of the foil.

Quenching: After cold rolling, the copper foil may be quenched to increase hardness and strength. Quenching involves heating the foil to a certain temperature and then rapidly cooling it, stabilizing its structure and enhancing hardness and strength.

Final Rolling: Post-quenching, the copper foil undergoes final rolling to achieve the desired thickness. This step requires high-precision equipment to ensure the specified thickness and surface smoothness.

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Applications of Flow Meters and Nozzles in the Copper Foil Industry

Nozzle Application: Water Rinse Process

CCLWater Rinse Process

In copper foil manufacturing, a water rinse step is often required to remove chemical additives, residues, or other unwanted substances that may remain on the surface of copper foils. Nozzles are employed to evenly spray clean water or rinse agents. Different copper foil processes may require varying rinse pressures, and nozzle pressure regulation capabilities can meet specific cleaning needs. In some cases, surface protection of copper foils may be necessary during the rinsing process to prevent unnecessary damage or oxidation. Nozzles can be used to apply surface protectants, ensuring the integrity of copper foils during rinsing.

Water washing equipment low-pressure water spray

Case: Leading Japanese Manufacturer of Electrolytic Copper Foil for PCBs

Situation: This company faced challenges with its imported equipment and original Japanese nozzles used in the water rinse process. Apart from the inconvenience of regularly purchasing replacement nozzles from Japan, the factory operated at pressures below 0.8 kgf/cm2, with a flow rate of only around 0.2 LPM. Conventional nozzles on the market struggled to maintain a fan-shaped spray pattern and suffered from uneven distribution at such low-pressure and low-flow conditions. As a result, the company sought an alternative nozzle solution.

Solution: LORRIC Single-piece Fan Nozzle (NH 01-100)
For this specific case, LORRIC recommended the NH 01-100 single-piece fan nozzle to the client. This nozzle demonstrated the ability to maintain a uniform spray with an angle of up to 100 degrees at a low-pressure environment of 0.8 kgf/cm2 and a flow rate of 0.2 LPM. This ensured efficient cleaning performance while preventing damage to the copper foil surface. After testing, the company verified that LORRIC's product met the machine requirements and fully replaced the water rinse nozzles in their equipment with our products.

 

Flow Meter Application - Copper Sulfate Solution Measurement

In the production process of electroplated copper foil, the concentration of copper sulfate solution significantly affects the quality of the copper foil produced. Therefore, operators need to monitor the usage of copper sulfate solution to control its concentration and maintain the quality of copper foil. Additionally, water is used for surface cleaning after copper foil manufacturing and during subsequent surface treatment processes. Flow meters can monitor water consumption in the rinsing process, optimizing the efficiency of the rinsing procedure.

Taiwanese petrochemical plant produces electrolytic copper foil

Case: Major Taiwanese Petrochemical Company

Situation: The company's electroplated copper foil equipment requires flow meters to measure the usage of copper sulfate solution and monitor solution concentration to control the quality of the produced foil. Traditional area-based flow meters were previously used in their equipment. While these meters are simple and cost-effective, they require personnel to observe the position of a floating ball to interpret flow rates, lacking the ability for real-time monitoring. With the rise of the smart factory concept, the company aimed to replace the flow meters on their equipment with digital flow meters that could be integrated with a central control system for computerized equipment monitoring.

Solution: LORRIC Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter (FU-ES EchoSense)
To meet the customer's requirements, LORRIC recommends the FU-ES EchoSense Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter. The EchoSense ultrasonic flow meter is designed for small-diameter pipelines. Its installation differs from traditional ultrasonic flow meters as it combines the probe and the main unit into one integrated design, utilizing a patented quick-lock design that allows for a 90-second installation, significantly reducing installation complexity. Furthermore, the EchoSense ultrasonic flow meter features a quick setup function, automatically detecting the pipe's material, wall thickness, liquid sound speed, and other environmental factors. Users can complete environment setup with just one button press. In terms of communication, the EchoSense ultrasonic flow meter offers three communication output options (4-20mA analog output, Modbus RTU RS485 control signal, and optocoupler switch signal - Pulse signal), allowing it to adapt to the communication format of the central control equipment within the factory, providing a comprehensive communication solution.

References

  1. ^ CCL Comprehensive Guide for Beginners - Circuits Diy
  2. ^ What Is Copper Clad Laminate (CCL)? - RAYMING
  3. ^ A Comprehensive Guide To Copper Clad Laminate (CCL) Used In PCB Fabrication - Chona PCB Manfacturer
  4. ^ A Complete Introduction To Copper Clad Laminate (CCL) (2022) - JHY
  5. ^ A Comprehensive Introduction of Copper Clad Laminate - PCBCART
  6. ^ What Is Copper Clad Laminate in PCB Fabrication? - NextPCB
  7. ^ Copper foil - Wikipedia
  8. ^ Electrodeposited copper foil manufacture - Tex Technology Inc.
  9. ^ Electrodeposited (ED) Copper Foil Manufacturing Key Processes - De Nora
  10. ^ Electrodeposited (ED) copper foil manufacturing - De Nora
  11. ^ Copper Foil Manufacturing - totalmateria
  12. ^ What Is Copper Clad Laminate (CCL)? - PCBgogo
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